nifti1

Read / write access to NIfTI1 image format

NIfTI1 format defined at http://nifti.nimh.nih.gov/nifti-1/

Nifti1DicomExtension(code, content[, parent_hdr])

NIfTI1 DICOM header extension

Nifti1Extension(code, content)

Baseclass for NIfTI1 header extensions.

Nifti1Extensions

Simple extension collection, implemented as a list-subclass.

Nifti1Header([binaryblock, endianness, …])

Class for NIfTI1 header

Nifti1Image(dataobj, affine[, header, …])

Class for single file NIfTI1 format image

Nifti1Pair(dataobj, affine[, header, extra, …])

Class for NIfTI1 format image, header pair

Nifti1PairHeader([binaryblock, endianness, …])

Class for NIfTI1 pair header

load(filename)

Load NIfTI1 single or pair from filename

save(img, filename)

Save NIfTI1 single or pair to filename

Nifti1DicomExtension

class nibabel.nifti1.Nifti1DicomExtension(code, content, parent_hdr=None)

Bases: nibabel.nifti1.Nifti1Extension

NIfTI1 DICOM header extension

This class is a thin wrapper around pydicom to read a binary DICOM byte string. If pydicom is available, content is exposed as a Dicom Dataset. Otherwise, this silently falls back to the standard NiftiExtension class and content is the raw bytestring loaded directly from the nifti file header.

Parameters
codeint or str

Canonical extension code as defined in the NIfTI standard, given either as integer or corresponding label (see extension_codes)

contentbytes or pydicom Dataset or None

Extension content - either a bytestring as read from the NIfTI file header or an existing pydicom Dataset. If a bystestring, the content is converted into a Dataset on initialization. If None, a new empty Dataset is created.

parent_hdrNifti1Header, optional

If a dicom extension belongs to an existing Nifti1Header, it may be provided here to ensure that the DICOM dataset is written with correctly corresponding endianness; otherwise it is assumed the dataset is little endian.

Notes

code should always be 2 for DICOM.

__init__(code, content, parent_hdr=None)
Parameters
codeint or str

Canonical extension code as defined in the NIfTI standard, given either as integer or corresponding label (see extension_codes)

contentbytes or pydicom Dataset or None

Extension content - either a bytestring as read from the NIfTI file header or an existing pydicom Dataset. If a bystestring, the content is converted into a Dataset on initialization. If None, a new empty Dataset is created.

parent_hdrNifti1Header, optional

If a dicom extension belongs to an existing Nifti1Header, it may be provided here to ensure that the DICOM dataset is written with correctly corresponding endianness; otherwise it is assumed the dataset is little endian.

Notes

code should always be 2 for DICOM.

Nifti1Extension

class nibabel.nifti1.Nifti1Extension(code, content)

Bases: object

Baseclass for NIfTI1 header extensions.

This class is sufficient to handle very simple text-based extensions, such as comment. More sophisticated extensions should/will be supported by dedicated subclasses.

Parameters
codeint or str

Canonical extension code as defined in the NIfTI standard, given either as integer or corresponding label (see extension_codes)

contentstr

Extension content as read from the NIfTI file header. This content is converted into a runtime representation.

__init__(code, content)
Parameters
codeint or str

Canonical extension code as defined in the NIfTI standard, given either as integer or corresponding label (see extension_codes)

contentstr

Extension content as read from the NIfTI file header. This content is converted into a runtime representation.

get_code()

Return the canonical extension type code.

get_content()

Return the extension content in its runtime representation.

get_sizeondisk()

Return the size of the extension in the NIfTI file.

write_to(fileobj, byteswap)

Write header extensions to fileobj

Write starts at fileobj current file position.

Parameters
fileobjfile-like object

Should implement write method

byteswapboolean

Flag if byteswapping the data is required.

Returns
None

Nifti1Extensions

class nibabel.nifti1.Nifti1Extensions

Bases: list

Simple extension collection, implemented as a list-subclass.

__init__($self, /, *args, **kwargs)

Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

count(ecode)

Returns the number of extensions matching a given ecode.

Parameters
codeint | str

The ecode can be specified either literal or as numerical value.

classmethod from_fileobj(fileobj, size, byteswap)

Read header extensions from a fileobj

Parameters
fileobjfile-like object

We begin reading the extensions at the current file position

sizeint

Number of bytes to read. If negative, fileobj will be read till its end.

byteswapboolean

Flag if byteswapping the read data is required.

Returns
An extension list. This list might be empty in case not extensions
were present in fileobj.
get_codes()

Return a list of the extension code of all available extensions

get_sizeondisk()

Return the size of the complete header extensions in the NIfTI file.

write_to(fileobj, byteswap)

Write header extensions to fileobj

Write starts at fileobj current file position.

Parameters
fileobjfile-like object

Should implement write method

byteswapboolean

Flag if byteswapping the data is required.

Returns
None

Nifti1Header

class nibabel.nifti1.Nifti1Header(binaryblock=None, endianness=None, check=True, extensions=())

Bases: nibabel.spm99analyze.SpmAnalyzeHeader

Class for NIfTI1 header

The NIfTI1 header has many more coded fields than the simpler Analyze variants. NIfTI1 headers also have extensions.

Nifti allows the header to be a separate file, as part of a nifti image / header pair, or to precede the data in a single file. The object needs to know which type it is, in order to manage the voxel offset pointing to the data, extension reading, and writing the correct magic string.

This class handles the header-preceding-data case.

Initialize header from binary data block and extensions

__init__(binaryblock=None, endianness=None, check=True, extensions=())

Initialize header from binary data block and extensions

copy()

Return copy of header

Take reference to extensions as well as copy of header contents

classmethod default_structarr(endianness=None)

Create empty header binary block with given endianness

exts_klass

alias of Nifti1Extensions

classmethod from_fileobj(fileobj, endianness=None, check=True)

Return read structure with given or guessed endiancode

Parameters
fileobjfile-like object

Needs to implement read method

endiannessNone or endian code, optional

Code specifying endianness of read data

Returns
wstrWrapStruct object

WrapStruct object initialized from data in fileobj

classmethod from_header(header=None, check=True)

Class method to create header from another header

Extend Analyze header copy by copying extensions from other Nifti types.

Parameters
headerHeader instance or mapping

a header of this class, or another class of header for conversion to this type

check{True, False}

whether to check header for integrity

Returns
hdrheader instance

fresh header instance of our own class

get_best_affine()

Select best of available transforms

get_data_shape()

Get shape of data

Notes

Applies freesurfer hack for large vectors described in issue 100 and save_nifti.m.

Allows for freesurfer hack for 7th order icosahedron surface described in issue 309, load_nifti.m, and save_nifti.m.

Examples

>>> hdr = Nifti1Header()
>>> hdr.get_data_shape()
(0,)
>>> hdr.set_data_shape((1,2,3))
>>> hdr.get_data_shape()
(1, 2, 3)

Expanding number of dimensions gets default zooms

>>> hdr.get_zooms()
(1.0, 1.0, 1.0)
get_dim_info()

Gets NIfTI MRI slice etc dimension information

Returns
freq{None,0,1,2}

Which data array axis is frequency encode direction

phase{None,0,1,2}

Which data array axis is phase encode direction

slice{None,0,1,2}

Which data array axis is slice encode direction

where ``data array`` is the array returned by ``get_data``
Because NIfTI1 files are natively Fortran indexed:

0 is fastest changing in file 1 is medium changing in file 2 is slowest changing in file

``None`` means the axis appears not to be specified.

Examples

See set_dim_info function

get_intent(code_repr='label')

Get intent code, parameters and name

Parameters
code_reprstring

string giving output form of intent code representation. Default is ‘label’; use ‘code’ for integer representation.

Returns
codestring or integer

intent code, or string describing code

parameterstuple

parameters for the intent

namestring

intent name

Examples

>>> hdr = Nifti1Header()
>>> hdr.set_intent('t test', (10,), name='some score')
>>> hdr.get_intent()
('t test', (10.0,), 'some score')
>>> hdr.get_intent('code')
(3, (10.0,), 'some score')
get_n_slices()

Return the number of slices

get_qform(coded=False)

Return 4x4 affine matrix from qform parameters in header

Parameters
codedbool, optional

If True, return {affine or None}, and qform code. If False, just return affine. {affine or None} means, return None if qform code == 0, and affine otherwise.

Returns
affineNone or (4,4) ndarray

If coded is False, always return affine reconstructed from qform quaternion. If coded is True, return None if qform code is 0, else return the affine.

codeint

Qform code. Only returned if coded is True.

get_qform_quaternion()

Compute quaternion from b, c, d of quaternion

Fills a value by assuming this is a unit quaternion

get_sform(coded=False)

Return 4x4 affine matrix from sform parameters in header

Parameters
codedbool, optional

If True, return {affine or None}, and sform code. If False, just return affine. {affine or None} means, return None if sform code == 0, and affine otherwise.

Returns
affineNone or (4,4) ndarray

If coded is False, always return affine from sform fields. If coded is True, return None if sform code is 0, else return the affine.

codeint

Sform code. Only returned if coded is True.

get_slice_duration()

Get slice duration

Returns
slice_durationfloat

time to acquire one slice

Notes

The NIfTI1 spec appears to require the slice dimension to be defined for slice_duration to have meaning.

Examples

>>> hdr = Nifti1Header()
>>> hdr.set_dim_info(slice=2)
>>> hdr.set_slice_duration(0.3)
>>> print("%0.1f" % hdr.get_slice_duration())
0.3
get_slice_times()

Get slice times from slice timing information

Returns
slice_timestuple

Times of acquisition of slices, where 0 is the beginning of the acquisition, ordered by position in file. nifti allows slices at the top and bottom of the volume to be excluded from the standard slice timing specification, and calls these “padding slices”. We give padding slices None as a time of acquisition

Examples

>>> hdr = Nifti1Header()
>>> hdr.set_dim_info(slice=2)
>>> hdr.set_data_shape((1, 1, 7))
>>> hdr.set_slice_duration(0.1)
>>> hdr['slice_code'] = slice_order_codes['sequential increasing']
>>> slice_times = hdr.get_slice_times()
>>> np.allclose(slice_times, [0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6])
True
get_slope_inter()

Get data scaling (slope) and DC offset (intercept) from header data

Returns
slopeNone or float

scaling (slope). None if there is no valid scaling from these fields

interNone or float

offset (intercept). None if there is no valid scaling or if offset is not finite.

Examples

>>> hdr = Nifti1Header()
>>> hdr.get_slope_inter()
(1.0, 0.0)
>>> hdr['scl_slope'] = 0
>>> hdr.get_slope_inter()
(None, None)
>>> hdr['scl_slope'] = np.nan
>>> hdr.get_slope_inter()
(None, None)
>>> hdr['scl_slope'] = 1
>>> hdr['scl_inter'] = 1
>>> hdr.get_slope_inter()
(1.0, 1.0)
>>> hdr['scl_inter'] = np.inf
>>> hdr.get_slope_inter() #doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
HeaderDataError: Valid slope but invalid intercept inf
get_xyzt_units()
has_data_intercept = True
has_data_slope = True
is_single = True
classmethod may_contain_header(binaryblock)
pair_magic = b'ni1'
pair_vox_offset = 0
quaternion_threshold = -3.5762786865234375e-07
set_data_shape(shape)

Set shape of data # noqa

If ndims == len(shape) then we set zooms for dimensions higher than ndims to 1.0

Nifti1 images can have up to seven dimensions. For FreeSurfer-variant Nifti surface files, the first dimension is assumed to correspond to vertices/nodes on a surface, and dimensions two and three are constrained to have depth of 1. Dimensions 4-7 are constrained only by type bounds.

Parameters
shapesequence

sequence of integers specifying data array shape

Notes

Applies freesurfer hack for large vectors described in issue 100 and save_nifti.m.

Allows for freesurfer hack for 7th order icosahedron surface described in issue 309, load_nifti.m, and save_nifti.m.

The Nifti1 standard header allows for the following “point set” definition of a surface, not currently implemented in nibabel.

To signify that the vector value at each voxel is really a
spatial coordinate (e.g., the vertices or nodes of a surface mesh):
  - dataset must have a 5th dimension
  - intent_code must be NIFTI_INTENT_POINTSET
  - dim[0] = 5
  - dim[1] = number of points
  - dim[2] = dim[3] = dim[4] = 1
  - dim[5] must be the dimensionality of space (e.g., 3 => 3D space).
  - intent_name may describe the object these points come from
    (e.g., "pial", "gray/white" , "EEG", "MEG").
set_dim_info(freq=None, phase=None, slice=None)

Sets nifti MRI slice etc dimension information

Parameters
freq{None, 0, 1, 2}

axis of data array referring to frequency encoding

phase{None, 0, 1, 2}

axis of data array referring to phase encoding

slice{None, 0, 1, 2}

axis of data array referring to slice encoding

``None`` means the axis is not specified.

Notes

This is stored in one byte in the header

Examples

>>> hdr = Nifti1Header()
>>> hdr.set_dim_info(1, 2, 0)
>>> hdr.get_dim_info()
(1, 2, 0)
>>> hdr.set_dim_info(freq=1, phase=2, slice=0)
>>> hdr.get_dim_info()
(1, 2, 0)
>>> hdr.set_dim_info()
>>> hdr.get_dim_info()
(None, None, None)
>>> hdr.set_dim_info(freq=1, phase=None, slice=0)
>>> hdr.get_dim_info()
(1, None, 0)
set_intent(code, params=(), name='', allow_unknown=False)

Set the intent code, parameters and name

If parameters are not specified, assumed to be all zero. Each intent code has a set number of parameters associated. If you specify any parameters, then it will need to be the correct number (e.g the “f test” intent requires 2). However, parameters can also be set in the file data, so we also allow not setting any parameters (empty parameter tuple).

Parameters
codeinteger or string

code specifying nifti intent

paramslist, tuple of scalars

parameters relating to intent (see intent_codes) defaults to (). Unspecified parameters are set to 0.0

namestring

intent name (description). Defaults to ‘’

allow_unknown{False, True}, optional

Allow unknown integer intent codes. If False (the default), a KeyError is raised on attempts to set the intent to an unknown code.

Returns
None

Examples

>>> hdr = Nifti1Header()
>>> hdr.set_intent(0)  # no intent
>>> hdr.set_intent('z score')
>>> hdr.get_intent()
('z score', (), '')
>>> hdr.get_intent('code')
(5, (), '')
>>> hdr.set_intent('t test', (10,), name='some score')
>>> hdr.get_intent()
('t test', (10.0,), 'some score')
>>> hdr.set_intent('f test', (2, 10), name='another score')
>>> hdr.get_intent()
('f test', (2.0, 10.0), 'another score')
>>> hdr.set_intent('f test')
>>> hdr.get_intent()
('f test', (0.0, 0.0), '')
>>> hdr.set_intent(9999, allow_unknown=True) # unknown code
>>> hdr.get_intent()
('unknown code 9999', (), '')
set_qform(affine, code=None, strip_shears=True)

Set qform header values from 4x4 affine

Parameters
affineNone or 4x4 array

affine transform to write into sform. If None, only set code.

codeNone, string or integer, optional

String or integer giving meaning of transform in affine. The default is None. If code is None, then:

  • If affine is None, code-> 0

  • If affine not None and existing qform code in header == 0, code-> 2 (aligned)

  • If affine not None and existing qform code in header != 0, code-> existing qform code in header

strip_shearsbool, optional

Whether to strip shears in affine. If True, shears will be silently stripped. If False, the presence of shears will raise a HeaderDataError

Notes

The qform transform only encodes translations, rotations and zooms. If there are shear components to the affine transform, and strip_shears is True (the default), the written qform gives the closest approximation where the rotation matrix is orthogonal. This is to allow quaternion representation. The orthogonal representation enforces orthogonal axes.

Examples

>>> hdr = Nifti1Header()
>>> int(hdr['qform_code'])  # gives 0 - unknown
0
>>> affine = np.diag([1,2,3,1])
>>> np.all(hdr.get_qform() == affine)
False
>>> hdr.set_qform(affine)
>>> np.all(hdr.get_qform() == affine)
True
>>> int(hdr['qform_code'])  # gives 2 - aligned
2
>>> hdr.set_qform(affine, code='talairach')
>>> int(hdr['qform_code'])
3
>>> hdr.set_qform(affine, code=None)
>>> int(hdr['qform_code'])
3
>>> hdr.set_qform(affine, code='scanner')
>>> int(hdr['qform_code'])
1
>>> hdr.set_qform(None)
>>> int(hdr['qform_code'])
0
set_sform(affine, code=None)

Set sform transform from 4x4 affine

Parameters
affineNone or 4x4 array

affine transform to write into sform. If None, only set code

codeNone, string or integer, optional

String or integer giving meaning of transform in affine. The default is None. If code is None, then:

  • If affine is None, code-> 0

  • If affine not None and existing sform code in header == 0, code-> 2 (aligned)

  • If affine not None and existing sform code in header != 0, code-> existing sform code in header

Examples

>>> hdr = Nifti1Header()
>>> int(hdr['sform_code'])  # gives 0 - unknown
0
>>> affine = np.diag([1,2,3,1])
>>> np.all(hdr.get_sform() == affine)
False
>>> hdr.set_sform(affine)
>>> np.all(hdr.get_sform() == affine)
True
>>> int(hdr['sform_code'])  # gives 2 - aligned
2
>>> hdr.set_sform(affine, code='talairach')
>>> int(hdr['sform_code'])
3
>>> hdr.set_sform(affine, code=None)
>>> int(hdr['sform_code'])
3
>>> hdr.set_sform(affine, code='scanner')
>>> int(hdr['sform_code'])
1
>>> hdr.set_sform(None)
>>> int(hdr['sform_code'])
0
set_slice_duration(duration)

Set slice duration

Parameters
durationscalar

time to acquire one slice

Examples

See get_slice_duration

set_slice_times(slice_times)

Set slice times into hdr

Parameters
slice_timestuple

tuple of slice times, one value per slice tuple can include None to indicate no slice time for that slice

Examples

>>> hdr = Nifti1Header()
>>> hdr.set_dim_info(slice=2)
>>> hdr.set_data_shape([1, 1, 7])
>>> hdr.set_slice_duration(0.1)
>>> times = [None, 0.2, 0.4, 0.1, 0.3, 0.0, None]
>>> hdr.set_slice_times(times)
>>> hdr.get_value_label('slice_code')
'alternating decreasing'
>>> int(hdr['slice_start'])
1
>>> int(hdr['slice_end'])
5
set_slope_inter(slope, inter=None)

Set slope and / or intercept into header

Set slope and intercept for image data, such that, if the image data is arr, then the scaled image data will be (arr * slope) + inter

(slope, inter) of (NaN, NaN) is a signal to a containing image to set slope, inter automatically on write.

Parameters
slopeNone or float

If None, implies slope of NaN. If slope is None or NaN then inter should be None or NaN. Values of 0, Inf or -Inf raise HeaderDataError

interNone or float, optional

Intercept. If None, implies inter of NaN. If slope is None or NaN then inter should be None or NaN. Values of Inf or -Inf raise HeaderDataError

set_xyzt_units(xyz=None, t=None)
single_magic = b'n+1'
single_vox_offset = 352
template_dtype = dtype([('sizeof_hdr', '<i4'), ('data_type', 'S10'), ('db_name', 'S18'), ('extents', '<i4'), ('session_error', '<i2'), ('regular', 'S1'), ('dim_info', 'u1'), ('dim', '<i2', (8,)), ('intent_p1', '<f4'), ('intent_p2', '<f4'), ('intent_p3', '<f4'), ('intent_code', '<i2'), ('datatype', '<i2'), ('bitpix', '<i2'), ('slice_start', '<i2'), ('pixdim', '<f4', (8,)), ('vox_offset', '<f4'), ('scl_slope', '<f4'), ('scl_inter', '<f4'), ('slice_end', '<i2'), ('slice_code', 'u1'), ('xyzt_units', 'u1'), ('cal_max', '<f4'), ('cal_min', '<f4'), ('slice_duration', '<f4'), ('toffset', '<f4'), ('glmax', '<i4'), ('glmin', '<i4'), ('descrip', 'S80'), ('aux_file', 'S24'), ('qform_code', '<i2'), ('sform_code', '<i2'), ('quatern_b', '<f4'), ('quatern_c', '<f4'), ('quatern_d', '<f4'), ('qoffset_x', '<f4'), ('qoffset_y', '<f4'), ('qoffset_z', '<f4'), ('srow_x', '<f4', (4,)), ('srow_y', '<f4', (4,)), ('srow_z', '<f4', (4,)), ('intent_name', 'S16'), ('magic', 'S4')])
write_to(fileobj)

Write structure to fileobj

Write starts at fileobj current file position.

Parameters
fileobjfile-like object

Should implement write method

Returns
None

Examples

>>> wstr = WrapStruct()
>>> from io import BytesIO
>>> str_io = BytesIO()
>>> wstr.write_to(str_io)
>>> wstr.binaryblock == str_io.getvalue()
True

Nifti1Image

class nibabel.nifti1.Nifti1Image(dataobj, affine, header=None, extra=None, file_map=None)

Bases: nibabel.nifti1.Nifti1Pair

Class for single file NIfTI1 format image

Initialize image

The image is a combination of (array-like, affine matrix, header), with optional metadata in extra, and filename / file-like objects contained in the file_map mapping.

Parameters
dataobjobject

Object containg image data. It should be some object that retuns an array from np.asanyarray. It should have a shape attribute or property

affineNone or (4,4) array-like

homogenous affine giving relationship between voxel coordinates and world coordinates. Affine can also be None. In this case, obj.affine also returns None, and the affine as written to disk will depend on the file format.

headerNone or mapping or header instance, optional

metadata for this image format

extraNone or mapping, optional

metadata to associate with image that cannot be stored in the metadata of this image type

file_mapmapping, optional

mapping giving file information for this image format

Notes

If both a header and an affine are specified, and the affine does not match the affine that is in the header, the affine will be used, but the sform_code and qform_code fields in the header will be re-initialised to their default values. This is performed on the basis that, if you are changing the affine, you are likely to be changing the space to which the affine is pointing. The set_sform() and set_qform() methods can be used to update the codes after an image has been created - see those methods, and the manual for more details.

__init__(dataobj, affine, header=None, extra=None, file_map=None)

Initialize image

The image is a combination of (array-like, affine matrix, header), with optional metadata in extra, and filename / file-like objects contained in the file_map mapping.

Parameters
dataobjobject

Object containg image data. It should be some object that retuns an array from np.asanyarray. It should have a shape attribute or property

affineNone or (4,4) array-like

homogenous affine giving relationship between voxel coordinates and world coordinates. Affine can also be None. In this case, obj.affine also returns None, and the affine as written to disk will depend on the file format.

headerNone or mapping or header instance, optional

metadata for this image format

extraNone or mapping, optional

metadata to associate with image that cannot be stored in the metadata of this image type

file_mapmapping, optional

mapping giving file information for this image format

Notes

If both a header and an affine are specified, and the affine does not match the affine that is in the header, the affine will be used, but the sform_code and qform_code fields in the header will be re-initialised to their default values. This is performed on the basis that, if you are changing the affine, you are likely to be changing the space to which the affine is pointing. The set_sform() and set_qform() methods can be used to update the codes after an image has been created - see those methods, and the manual for more details.

files_types = (('image', '.nii'),)
header_class

alias of Nifti1Header

update_header()

Harmonize header with image data and affine

valid_exts = ('.nii',)

Nifti1Pair

class nibabel.nifti1.Nifti1Pair(dataobj, affine, header=None, extra=None, file_map=None)

Bases: nibabel.analyze.AnalyzeImage

Class for NIfTI1 format image, header pair

Initialize image

The image is a combination of (array-like, affine matrix, header), with optional metadata in extra, and filename / file-like objects contained in the file_map mapping.

Parameters
dataobjobject

Object containg image data. It should be some object that retuns an array from np.asanyarray. It should have a shape attribute or property

affineNone or (4,4) array-like

homogenous affine giving relationship between voxel coordinates and world coordinates. Affine can also be None. In this case, obj.affine also returns None, and the affine as written to disk will depend on the file format.

headerNone or mapping or header instance, optional

metadata for this image format

extraNone or mapping, optional

metadata to associate with image that cannot be stored in the metadata of this image type

file_mapmapping, optional

mapping giving file information for this image format

Notes

If both a header and an affine are specified, and the affine does not match the affine that is in the header, the affine will be used, but the sform_code and qform_code fields in the header will be re-initialised to their default values. This is performed on the basis that, if you are changing the affine, you are likely to be changing the space to which the affine is pointing. The set_sform() and set_qform() methods can be used to update the codes after an image has been created - see those methods, and the manual for more details.

__init__(dataobj, affine, header=None, extra=None, file_map=None)

Initialize image

The image is a combination of (array-like, affine matrix, header), with optional metadata in extra, and filename / file-like objects contained in the file_map mapping.

Parameters
dataobjobject

Object containg image data. It should be some object that retuns an array from np.asanyarray. It should have a shape attribute or property

affineNone or (4,4) array-like

homogenous affine giving relationship between voxel coordinates and world coordinates. Affine can also be None. In this case, obj.affine also returns None, and the affine as written to disk will depend on the file format.

headerNone or mapping or header instance, optional

metadata for this image format

extraNone or mapping, optional

metadata to associate with image that cannot be stored in the metadata of this image type

file_mapmapping, optional

mapping giving file information for this image format

Notes

If both a header and an affine are specified, and the affine does not match the affine that is in the header, the affine will be used, but the sform_code and qform_code fields in the header will be re-initialised to their default values. This is performed on the basis that, if you are changing the affine, you are likely to be changing the space to which the affine is pointing. The set_sform() and set_qform() methods can be used to update the codes after an image has been created - see those methods, and the manual for more details.

as_reoriented(ornt)

Apply an orientation change and return a new image

If ornt is identity transform, return the original image, unchanged

Parameters
ornt(n,2) orientation array

orientation transform. ornt[N,1]` is flip of axis N of the array implied by `shape`, where 1 means no flip and -1 means flip.  For example, if ``N==0 and ornt[0,1] == -1, and there’s an array arr of shape shape, the flip would correspond to the effect of np.flipud(arr). ornt[:,0] is the transpose that needs to be done to the implied array, as in arr.transpose(ornt[:,0])

get_qform(coded=False)

Return 4x4 affine matrix from qform parameters in header

Parameters
codedbool, optional

If True, return {affine or None}, and qform code. If False, just return affine. {affine or None} means, return None if qform code == 0, and affine otherwise.

Returns
affineNone or (4,4) ndarray

If coded is False, always return affine reconstructed from qform quaternion. If coded is True, return None if qform code is 0, else return the affine.

codeint

Qform code. Only returned if coded is True.

See also

set_qform, get_sform

get_sform(coded=False)

Return 4x4 affine matrix from sform parameters in header

Parameters
codedbool, optional

If True, return {affine or None}, and sform code. If False, just return affine. {affine or None} means, return None if sform code == 0, and affine otherwise.

Returns
affineNone or (4,4) ndarray

If coded is False, always return affine from sform fields. If coded is True, return None if sform code is 0, else return the affine.

codeint

Sform code. Only returned if coded is True.

See also

set_sform, get_qform

header_class

alias of Nifti1PairHeader

rw = True
set_qform(affine, code=None, strip_shears=True, **kwargs)

Set qform header values from 4x4 affine

Parameters
affineNone or 4x4 array

affine transform to write into sform. If None, only set code.

codeNone, string or integer

String or integer giving meaning of transform in affine. The default is None. If code is None, then:

  • If affine is None, code-> 0

  • If affine not None and existing qform code in header == 0, code-> 2 (aligned)

  • If affine not None and existing qform code in header != 0, code-> existing qform code in header

strip_shearsbool, optional

Whether to strip shears in affine. If True, shears will be silently stripped. If False, the presence of shears will raise a HeaderDataError

update_affinebool, optional

Whether to update the image affine from the header best affine after setting the qform. Must be keyword argument (because of different position in set_qform). Default is True

See also

get_qform, set_sform

Examples

>>> data = np.arange(24).reshape((2,3,4))
>>> aff = np.diag([2, 3, 4, 1])
>>> img = Nifti1Pair(data, aff)
>>> img.get_qform()
array([[ 2.,  0.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  3.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  4.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  0.,  1.]])
>>> img.get_qform(coded=True)
(None, 0)
>>> aff2 = np.diag([3, 4, 5, 1])
>>> img.set_qform(aff2, 'talairach')
>>> qaff, code = img.get_qform(coded=True)
>>> np.all(qaff == aff2)
True
>>> int(code)
3
set_sform(affine, code=None, **kwargs)

Set sform transform from 4x4 affine

Parameters
affineNone or 4x4 array

affine transform to write into sform. If None, only set code

codeNone, string or integer

String or integer giving meaning of transform in affine. The default is None. If code is None, then:

  • If affine is None, code-> 0

  • If affine not None and existing sform code in header == 0, code-> 2 (aligned)

  • If affine not None and existing sform code in header != 0, code-> existing sform code in header

update_affinebool, optional

Whether to update the image affine from the header best affine after setting the qform. Must be keyword argument (because of different position in set_qform). Default is True

See also

get_sform, set_qform

Examples

>>> data = np.arange(24).reshape((2,3,4))
>>> aff = np.diag([2, 3, 4, 1])
>>> img = Nifti1Pair(data, aff)
>>> img.get_sform()
array([[ 2.,  0.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  3.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  4.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  0.,  1.]])
>>> saff, code = img.get_sform(coded=True)
>>> saff
array([[ 2.,  0.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  3.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  4.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  0.,  1.]])
>>> int(code)
2
>>> aff2 = np.diag([3, 4, 5, 1])
>>> img.set_sform(aff2, 'talairach')
>>> saff, code = img.get_sform(coded=True)
>>> np.all(saff == aff2)
True
>>> int(code)
3
update_header()

Harmonize header with image data and affine

See AnalyzeImage.update_header for more examples

Examples

>>> data = np.zeros((2,3,4))
>>> affine = np.diag([1.0,2.0,3.0,1.0])
>>> img = Nifti1Image(data, affine)
>>> hdr = img.header
>>> np.all(hdr.get_qform() == affine)
True
>>> np.all(hdr.get_sform() == affine)
True

Nifti1PairHeader

class nibabel.nifti1.Nifti1PairHeader(binaryblock=None, endianness=None, check=True, extensions=())

Bases: nibabel.nifti1.Nifti1Header

Class for NIfTI1 pair header

Initialize header from binary data block and extensions

__init__(binaryblock=None, endianness=None, check=True, extensions=())

Initialize header from binary data block and extensions

is_single = False

load

nibabel.nifti1.load(filename)

Load NIfTI1 single or pair from filename

Parameters
filenamestr

filename of image to be loaded

Returns
imgNifti1Image or Nifti1Pair

NIfTI1 single or pair image instance

Raises
ImageFileError

if filename doesn’t look like NIfTI1;

IOError

if filename does not exist.

save

nibabel.nifti1.save(img, filename)

Save NIfTI1 single or pair to filename

Parameters
filenamestr

filename to which to save image